Silk road: чему нас учит самая громкая история об анонимности в сети? первая часть

Top 5 alternatives for Silk Road

If the Silk Road goes down, here is the list of Silk Road alternatives we recommend checking out.

1. AlphaBay

AlphaBay is the biggest Silk Road alternative; it is a regular darknet marketplace which is designed to suit the needs of the users who want to sell products worldwide.

Click here to access AlphaBay (http://pwoah7foa6au2pul.onion/).

2. Dream Market

Dream Market is one of the oldest Darknet marketplaces and running since December 2013.

Click here to access Dream Market (http://lchudifyeqm4ldjj.onion/).

3. Valhalla

The Valhalla market is easy for browsing since its organization into categories and subcategories is quite well thought out.

Click here to access Valhalla (http://silkkitiehdg5mug.onion/).

4. Outlaw Market

Outlaw Market is not well-known for the beauty of the design of their site, but what it lacks in UI design it makes up in sheer safety measures.

Click here to access Outlaw Markets (http://outfor6jwcztwbpd.onion/).

5. Hansa Market

Hansa Market is a darknet marketplace with great precaution and safety measures. They claim that there is no chance that someone would disappear with the customer’s Bitcoins.

Click here to access Hansa Market (http://hansamkt2rr6nfg3.onion/).

For further queries about How to access the Silk Road 3.1, please comment below.

The Fall of Silk Road

The Silk Road came to its demise in 2013 after the FBI, after learning about the existence of the hidden marketplace, colluded with the DEA, IRS, and Customs agents. Although the federal agents admitted that the use of Tor and Bitcoin to obscure addresses were major obstacles that they encountered, they were still able to crack down on the underground drug market.

The FBI shut down the site permanently, seized more than 144,000 bitcoins (then valued at $34 million), and arrested a number of users of the site including the founder, Ross Ulbricht, who made about $80 million in commissions from transactions carried out within the site. Ulbricht was convicted in 2015 and is currently serving a life sentence without the possibility of parole.

Why China’s Silk Road Trade Ended

Technological changes, political changes in the Ming Empire, and European production of silk, porcelain and other traditional export products caused the decline of the Silk Road.

By the 1500s, European trading ships were regular plying Ming Empire coastal waters, and as travel by sea became easier and more popular, trade along the Silk Road declined. At the same time, it became more difficult to travel overland. Ship transportation was faster and more economical.

The conquest of the Byzantium Empire and the Ottoman control of western Asia kept Europe and the empires of the Ming and Qing separated from the West, and overland travel became dangerous. While trade of silk for furs with the Russians north of the original Silk Road continued, by the end of the fourteenth century, trade and travel along the route had decreased significantly.

In the 1400s, the Ming court policy shifted to isolationism. They stopped Silk Road trade. Also, there was less of a demand for silk and porcelain in the West because they produced their own. In the 1100s, Italians began producing silk and textiles, and by the 1400s, Lyon was a major silk textile production center for the European market. By the 1700s, Europeans also produced porcelain and partly satisfied internal demand.

After this, some of the Central Asian Silk Road routes, especially those in high-mountain areas in Tajikistan, Afghanistan, China, Pakistan and India continued to be used until the beginning of the 20th century.

Short Revival During the Japanese Attack (1937–1945)

The Japanese attack on China forced the revival of the overland route to Europe. By 1939, the Japanese controlled Chinese coastal waters, and the Kuomintang government asked the USSR to build an automobile road that partially coincided with the northern route of the Silk Road. The road ran about 3,000 kilometers from the Turkestan-Siberian Railway (Turk-Sib) to Lanzhou.

In 1940, Great Britain closed the Burma Road to China at the behest of Japan, and the Soviet Silk Road became the only road by means of which China could receive aid from the outside world. From 1937 to 1941, the Soviets delivered armaments and this helped the Kuomingtang and Communist armies to survive. After 1945, maritime trade revived, and airplanes also helped to transport goods.

The Han Empire (206 BC–220 AD): Trade Developed

During the Han Dynasty era, big caravans of hundreds of people traveled between Chang’an and the West.

Silk Road trade commenced in a great fashion through the work mission of Zhang Qian (200–114 BC). Originally, the people in the Han Empire (206 BC–220 AD) traded silk within the empire from the interior to the western borders, but the internal trade was stymied by the attacks of small nomadic tribes on the trade caravans.

In order to protect their internal trade routes, the Han court sent General Zhang Qian (200–114 BC) as an envoy to build relationships with the Central Asian states and to find their former allies, the Yuezhi people, who had left Xinjiang and the Gansu Corridor after they were defeated by the Xiongnu in 176 BC.

Loulan, Qiuzi and Yutian were later all abandoned for unknown reasons, but travelers today can still see the ruins of these three once flourishing cities.

  • Loulan, on the western banks of Lake Lop Nur, about 200 km (120 mi) south of Urumqi was subsequently covered by the desert.
  • Qiuzi was in the present Kuche County of Aksu Prefecture, about 400 km (250 mi) southwest of Urumqi.
  • Yutian is now called Hetian. It is a small prefectural city on the southwest fringe of the Taklamakan Desert about 1,000 km (600 mi) southwest of Urumqi.

Zhang’s officers went even further onwards into Central Asia. He reached Sogdia and was surprised that the Yuezhi had settled the region of the Fergana Valley and had a high level of civilization, craftsmanship and wealth. The townspeople operated a rich trading network with India, the Near East, the Middle East, and the countries of the ancient world.

When Zhang Qian came back to China, he told the emperor about the rich countries lying to the west, and he described the large and swift «winged horses» which were better than the breeds in the empire. The emperor wanted these horses to use in their wars against the Xiongnu and other tribes, so soon trading embassies were sent to Central Asia to obtain the horses. Among the gifts they sent was silk that was highly prized for its beauty and novelty. So the Silk Road trade began in a big way.

The countries Zhang and his delegation visited sent their envoys to Chang’an, and traders began to travel the trade routes to carry silk and ceramics to other parts of the world. The Han imported Roman glassware and gold, silverware from Persia and much silver, gold and precious stone from the countries of Central Asia among many other imports.

Recommended tour: 1-Day Xi’an Highlights Tour

Historical Background of the Silk Road

Silk Road

The ancient Silk Road was established during the Han Dynasty era (206 BC – 220 AD). The Han Empire expanded to the west and built a trade network with Central Asian countries, and it even connected the empire with Europe. The Han people traded silk, spices, and jade to other countries, and they bought glass, gold, and other noble metals.

The ancient Silk Road acted as an exchange bridge for trade, culture, and religions between China and Western countries. However, due to the Arab conquest of Central Asia during the Tang Dynasty era (618–907) and their attack on Tang trading outposts, the trade diminished.

However, trade boomed when the Mongols established a vast empire covering much of Eurasia. When the Yuan Empire (1279–1368) was overthrown, the Mongols became the enemies. They retained control in Xinjiang and stopped the trade.

When the Manchu Qing Empire (1644–1912) arose in alliance with Mongols, even though they had control of the Silk Road routes, there was little use for overland transport because ship construction and navigation technologies improved substantially. Maritime trade flourished. The Central Asian countries were isolated and developed little economically.

For more detail see The History of the Silk Road in China.

Альтернативный silkroad online сервер – что это?

Зачастую русский силкроад ассоциируется у пользователей с мрачным и долгим качем, а также гриндом невероятного количества монстров для того, чтобы набрать очередной уровень. Естественно, энтузиасты пытаются создать свой сервер игры силкроад с быстрым качем и наворотами собственного сочинения. Обычно из этого мало что выходит, но десяток-другой все же заходит на частный сервер в надежде узреть что-нибудь необычное.

Я не говорю, что частные silkroad online’овские сервера нужно избегать всеми возможными способами. Им тоже есть свое применение, однако серьезно играть на одном из них я бы не советовал. Нестабильность этих миров силкроад может сильно огорчить заядлого геймера, если вдруг он обнаружит, что его персонажа откатили на несколько уровней или вообще стерли из базы данных. Да, бывает и такое, причем нередко.

Но для игрока, который хочет узнать побольше о любимой игре, сервера силкроад с рейтами х100 и более могут стать настоящей находкой. Быстрый кач позволяет в режиме реального времени посмотреть, как же лучше всего качать персонажа, который ждет не дождется очередного подъема мастери в официальном русском силкроаде. Здесь вы можете не бояться запороть персонажа, ведь частный silkroad online сервер с легкостью позволит прокачать вам нового за каких-нибудь несколько часов. Вы можете дать волю своему воображению, создавая самые причудливые билды и проверяя их на практике в бою против самых мощных мобов подобного silkroad online’овского сервера – и все это через максимум день-два после создания вашего перса.

Также вы вдоволь можете поупражняться в борьбе против других игроков (если, конечно вы их найдете на полупустых «пиратках»). Благо, быстрый кач позволяет использовать многие важные скиллы даже абсолютным новичкам в этой онлайн-игре и попробовать пвп на вкус уже в первые часы игры. Но если вы, как игрок, прокачавший хотя бы десятка два уровней в русском силкроаде, рассчитываете на легкую победу, то вы делаете это зря. Помимо вас на каждом неофициальном сервере силкроада будет хотя бы несколько человек, использующих пиратский сервер в качестве полигона для тренировок.

Traveling Along the New Silk Road

The Terracotta Army in Xi’an

There are more than 60 countries along the New Silk Road. Lots of tourism resources are waiting for you to explore them.

In China, most inland cities will develop quickly due to infrastructure construction such as high-speed railways, highways, and airways. Traveling to cities like Xi’an, Urumqi, Kunming, Guilin, and Lhasa will be more convenient. Also, applying for a tourism visa will be more convenient for countries located along the New Silk Road.

Popular Tourist Cities Along the New Silk Road in China

Mogao Caves in Dunhuang

Xi’an was the starting point of the ancient Silk Road, and today it’s located along the New Silk Road. It’s a popular tourist city that is well-known for the Terracotta Army and the long history of ancient China.

Recommended tours: 

  • 1-Day Xi’an Highlights Tour
  • More Xi’an tours

Dunhuang is a well-known city that was located on the ancient Silk Road. To protect trade along the Silk Road, the government set up military defenses at Dunhuang. Dunhuang is famous for the Buddhist caves containing beautiful Buddha statues and mural paintings.

Recommended tours: 

  • 6-Day Silk Road Photography Tour
  • 5-Day Dunhuang Desert Culture Journey
  • More Silk Road tours

Urumqi is in Western China and is close to Central Asian countries. Cities near Urumqi, such as Turpan and Kashgar, were main trading towns along the ancient Silk Road. Urumqi was the first city to construct a tourism distribution center on the Silk Road Economic Belt.

Recommended tours: 

  • 7-Day Xinjiang Highlights Tour
  • Contact us to create a trip according to your needs

A New Silk Road Initiative

In 2013, President Xi Jinping proposed that a new Silk Road should be constructed. The ‘Belt’ refers to the overland routes and the ‘Road’ refers to the sea routes. The Belt and Road Initiative is a new Silk Road project that promotes global cooperation and economic development.

The Silk Road Economic Belt

On September 7th, 2013, the Silk Road Economic Belt was initiated that aims to connect Central Asian countries. The «One Belt» route stretches to the Baltic Sea area via Central Asia and Russia, to the Mediterranean Sea area via Central Asia and Western Asia, and to the Indian Ocean area via southwest China.

Countries along the Silk Road Economic Belt:

Countries in Central Asia such as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan are just across the border from China. They are closely connected with China’s economy.

Middle-eastern countries such as Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey mainly trade oil and gas. They look forward to developing other industries and agriculture through cooperation with China.

Other countries on the boundary between Europe and Central Asia such as Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Moldova are expected to achieve economic integration.

Russia is an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt. It has a close relationship with Central Asian countries, the countries of the Caucasus region, and Western Asian countries.

If the issues in Afghanistan can be resolved peacefully, then the development of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India will also be promoted by the Belt and Road Initiative.

The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road

On October 3rd, 2013, the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road was initiated with the purpose of connecting the member countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The «One Road» route stretches to Europe via the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean, and it stretches to the South Pacific Ocean via the South China Sea.

The main cities on the route of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road is: Quanzhou – Fuzhou – Guangzhou – Haikou – Beihai – Hanoi (Vietnam) – Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) – Jakarta (Indonesia) – Colombo (Sri Lanka) – Kolkata (India) – Nairobi (Kenya) – Athens (Greece) – Venice (Italy).

Why China’s Silk Road Is So Significant has more information about the modern Silk Road.

Recommended tours:

  • 11-Day Tour from Xi’an to Kashgar — Along the Great Silk Road
  • 3-Day Quanzhou Tour with Anxi Oolong Tea Experience — Discover the Starting Point of the Maritime Silk Road

Understanding Silk Road

The digital era has brought many technology innovations to our home fronts and disrupted life as we know it. We can now conduct transactions online with ecommerce sites, pay for online transactions using virtual currency, get loans online using social lending sites, operate anonymously on the web using data anonymization technology, and even connect with company recruiters using social media sites. The list of digital technology inventions goes on and on and ventures into every sector of the world economy, such as the financial sector or the retail sector. An increase in the use of cyber technology like cryptocurrency and ecommerce marketplaces led to an increase in the demand for data privacy. Demand for privacy resulted in an increase in regulation and laws over how data is used as well as an increase in technological tools and platform created to serve users who prefer anonymity. While the initiation of data anonymization tools helps in protecting users’ personally identifiable information (PII), these tools are also used by entities who intend to conduct illegal and criminal activities. In 2011, the Silk Road was born out of a need to connect illegal drug sellers with interested buyers online while protecting their identities and transactions using anonymization techniques. 

Through a combination of data anonymization technology and a feedback trading system, Silk Road created a haven for drug traders. The site was accessible only through a network known as Tor, which exists mainly to anonymize user data and activities online. Tor obfuscates users’ addresses so they appear hidden to unwanted parties looking to surveil the user’s transactions and activities. For this reason, Silk Road buyers and sellers brazenly conducted illegal drug transactions without fear of their IP addresses being traced back to them. Another reason Silk Road thrived was the buyer feedback implemented on the platform. Buyers normally would provide feedback on sellers after receipt of the goods. The feedback received was then used by the site to weed out fraudulent sellers, while reputable sellers had their products highly sought after. This promoted buyer confidence on the online platform.

All trades on Silk Road were conducting using the increasingly popular digital currency known as Bitcoin. Every Bitcoin transaction is recorded on a public ledger, which is easily accessible to legal and regulatory bodies. Due to the transparency evident in Bitcoin transactions, dark wallets were invented with the primary purpose of encrypting and masking all Bitcoin transactions. Silk Road participants who used these Bitcoin wallets to fund their transactions enjoyed an added layer of privacy.

Tang Dynasty (618–917): Trade Flourished

Turpan

In the early Tang Dynasty (618–917) era, the Silk Road route in Xinjiang was controlled by Turkic tribes. They allied with small states in Xinjiang against the Tang.

The Tang Dynasty later conquered the Turkic tribes, reopened the route, and promoted trade. Trade with the West boomed.

The Sogdians played a major role in the Tang Dynasty trade and rose to special prominence in the military and government of the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD) court. Sogdian merchants and diplomats traveled as far west as the Byzantine Empire, and they established a trade network that stretched about 1,500 kilometers from Sogdiana to Tang territory.

At the time it was commonly believed that people in those states were brutal and wild, and Xuanzang was surprised by the warm reception he received along the way. His report contributed to the Tang government’s improved relations with these tribes and kingdoms.

However, by 760 AD, the Tang Government lost control of the Western Region and trade on the Silk Road ceased.

Недостатки прокачки на подобных серверах

Первый недостаток я уже упоминал: это нестабильность подобных фанатских творений. Сегодня сервер работает, а завтра или упал, или исчез навсегда. Это является дополнительным поводом в пользу использования мощностей, которые предлагает вам в silkroad online пиратский сервер исключительно для более глубокого познания скрытых граней игры.

Также учтите, что многие администраторы подобных частных вселенных переделывают баланс на свой вкус. Обязательно прочитайте список всех изменений на сайте сервера, чтобы быть в курсе того, что вас ожидает.

Торговля в Silkroad

Естественно, нужно огорчить людей, пытающихся заработать на продаже золота и игровых вещей. Никто и никогда не станет покупать у вас игровое золото, хранящееся на пиратском сервере. Так что ради наживы даже не стоит и начинать там играть.

В целом, вот и все особенности игры на частных серверах силкроад онлайн. Запомните, что они хороши для тренировки – никак не для серьезной игры. Если вы хотите ощутить все прелести виртуального Шелкового пути, то выбирайте только официальный русский сервер силкроад.

Нравится

What Was Silk Road?

Silk Road was a digital black market platform that was popular for hosting money laundering activities and illegal drug transactions using Bitcoin. Silk Road, regarded as the first darknet market, was launched in 2011 and eventually shut down by the FBI in 2013. It was founded by Ross William Ulbricht, who is now serving a life sentence in prison for his role in Silk Road.

Since that time, several other darknet markets have risen.

Key Takeaways

  • The Silk Road was an online black market where buyers and sellers of illegal or unethical items could transact anonymously.
  • Utilizing privacy techniques such as the Tor network and cryptocurrency transactions, people were able to transact in drugs, hacked passwords, illegal data, and other contraband.
  • The FBI shut down Silk Road in 2013 and its founder Ross Ulbricht was sentenced to prison for life.

Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368): Trade Reached Its Zenith

Grand Buddha Temple in Zhangye

Trade on the Silk Road revived and reached its zenith during the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), when the Mongols promoted trade in their huge empire that stretched across Eurasia. Genghis Khan conquered all the small states, unified China, and built a large empire under his rule.

Marco Polo (1254–1324) traveled along the Silk Road visiting the Yuan capital city Dadu (today’s ). In his famous book about the Orient, he mentions a special passport in the form of a board. It was issued by the Yuan government to the merchants to protect their trade and free movement within the country.

Other preferential treatment was also given to the merchants, and trade boomed. Silk was traded for medicines, perfumes, slaves, and precious stones.

Why Silk Road Trade Began

The region of China was isolated from the civilizations of the West by the world’s highest mountains, some of the largest and most severe deserts, and long distances. In between, nomadic people raided travelers and traders.

However, the people of the Shang (1600–1046 BC), Zhou, and Han dynasties mastered producing several kinds of products that were important and unique such as silk, porcelain, and paper, and these were greatly prized in the West.

But to reach the West, there were only two overland routes. Sea travel was as yet too primitive. One land route passed through the Gansu Corridor, extended westwards to Xinjiang, and then split into several routes. This is called the Silk Road. The other called the Tea Horse Road started from Yunnan and Sichuan and crosses Tibet.

The products such as silk were very valuable to those in Central Asia and as far away as Europe. They paid with precious metals, animal skins, and some of their own manufactured products such as woolen goods, carpets, and glass products that were prized in the East.

  • Check China Silk Road Tours.
  • See more about What Was Traded on China’s Silk Road and Why below.

The Maritime Silk Road (1112 BC – 1912)

The Maritime Silk Road grew in importance from the Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC). Due to Arab conquests and wars in the West, maritime trade increased in the Tang era. With the Mongol invasion of Central Asia, maritime trade peaked during the Song Dynasty (960–1279) with Song trading junks controlling most of the trade.

Then maritime trade again decreased in the Ming era (1368–1912) due to imperially imposed sea trade bans. During the Qing Dynasty, filling the vacuum, Europeans took over the trade routes and their ships ferried most of the products.

Recommended tour: 3-Day Quanzhou Tour to Discover the Starting Point of the Maritime Silk Road

Silk Road 3.1

Click here to access Silk Road 3.1 (http://silkroad7rn2puhj.onion/).

According to the admin, Silk Road 3.1 was created because its ancestor was shut down and supposedly, most vendors moved to the new version of the marketplace. The users should ensure that your old username will not work on 3.1, so you have to get a new one in 3.1. While comes to interface, Silk Road 3.1 is quite similar to the previous version. You will find the usual menu’s like home, messages, profile, orders, support, faq, settings, and log out at the top of the page. There will be a search bar below the dashboard to browse the desired items which are arranged in nine categories of the user’s interface.

The Silk Road’s Prehistoric Beginnings (c. 5000–1300 BC)

Chinese silk fabrics were light to carry, easy to transport, and a very valuable export.

The prehistoric trade and travel across Eurasia is little known, but there is evidence of trade and travel to Xinjiang even 4,000 years ago. In the Shang Kingdom (1600-1046 BC), jade was highly valued, and they imported jade from an area of Xinjiang.

By the 1st millennium BC, people carried silk to Siberia through the Gansu Corridor over the northern branch of the Silk Road. Silk was found in a tomb in Egypt that dates to about 1070 BC that suggests that even at this early time, silk was traded across Eurasia.

Recommended tour: 7-Day Xinjiang Highlights Tour

How to access the Silk Road 3.1 by using Tor Browser?

Users must have a Tor Browser to access the Silk Road 3.1. We will show you how to access the Silk Road 3.1 by using Tor Browser.

Step 1: First of all, Install Tor Browser on your computer.

Step 2: Then go to Onion Url of Silk Road 3.1 – http://silkroad7rn2puhj.onion/

(Note: The URL will not open in any other browser.)

Step 3: Then login screen will open on your screen. Then click “Register” to create a new user ID. You have a user ID, you can log-in with your user ID and password.


Silk Road

Step 4: Then enter the necessary details and click “Register” to create the new account.


Silk Road

Step 5: Then you will see a long string of characters on the screen as a key. Copy that and note it down somewhere else, in case you need to recover your account.

Step 6: After creating the new account, you can access Silk road 3.1 to buy and sell products.

History of Silk Road

The Silk Road was first started in February 2011. Initially, there was a limited number of new seller accounts available; new sellers had to buy an account in an auction. Later, a fixed fee was required for each new merchant account. In October 2013, the FBI shut down the website and arrested Ross William Ulbricht on charges of being the website’s pseudonymous founder “Dread Pirate Roberts.” Then, Silk Road 2.0 came online on 6th November of 2013, maintained by the former administrators of Silk Road. Silk Road 2.0 also shut down, and the alleged operator was sentenced on 6th November of 2014 under the operation called, “Operation Onymous.” Ross William Ulbricht has been condemned to eight charges linked to Silk Road in U.S. Federal Court in Manhattan and was jailed for life in prison without the possibility of parole. Then, Silk Road 3.0 came online in 2014, and some of the users claim that Silk Road 3.0 is a Scam. Hence, the admins launched a new and improved version of the market – Silk Road 3.1.

The Southern Silk Road or Tea Horse Road (700–1930)

In contrast with the northern Silk Road, the Tea Horse Road’s major export product was tea.

However, the empires of the Ming and Qing dynasties continued trade in silk, but especially of tea, with Tibet and southern Asia via the very old Tea Horse Road (Chama in Chinese) trade routes. This trade route is also called the «Southern Silk Road.»

Yunnan and Sichuan were big exporters of tea for more than a thousand years to the Tibetan Empire. In return, the Tibetans exported horses and various products.

However, during modern times, maritime trade and the availability of Indian and Ceylon tea made the Tea Horse trade route obsolete.